Ponting warns that we are approaching a major crossroads. The food surplus allowed for a percentage of the population to pursue other activities like art, governance, and war. I'm fortunate to have learned my lesson from previous reads and go through the Table of Contents before suffering throughout most of this book. The result was that when the colonies became independent they found it very difficult to remold their economies and escape from the constraints of a global economy constructed by the wealthy industrialized states. With the calm and objective voice of a venerable professor, Ponting lifts readers far above the intense roaring madness that we consider normal. Until 1800, most people travelled on foot. Over the same period, the political history of the world has produced a large number of unequal states, each asserting their right to independence and national sovereignty and their need to meet their national interests as they define them.
The cumulative effect of the various alterations acted like a ratchet. Description: x, 452 pages : illustrations, maps ; 22 cm Contents: The lessons of Easter Island -- The foundations of history -- Ninety-nine per cent of human history -- The first great transition -- Destruction and survival -- The long struggle -- Ways of thought -- The rape of the world -- The foundations of inequality -- Disease and death -- The weight of numbers -- The second great transition -- The rise of the city -- Creating the affluent society -- Polluting the world -- The threat to global systems -- The shadow of the past. The whole book can be summarized by one page. The family of life is paying a terrible price for our ongoing ignorance of environmental history. The achievements of modern industrial, urban, high-consumption, high-energy societies have been remarkable.
With the calm and objective voice of a venerable professor, Ponting lifts readers far above the intense roaring madness that we consider normal. Research into a wide variety of disciplines is increasingly making it clear that life on earth and all human societies depend on the maintenance of a number of delicate balances within and between a whole series of complex processes. Continued increases in population even at a lower rate than in the recent past will put more pressure on resources and agriculture. For almost the entire human journey, wood was our fuel, a renewable resource. In parallel, carbon-absorbing forests — particularly tropical forests — have been destroyed on an unprecedented scale in the last two hundred years. About 12,000 years ago, during the early stages of the evolution in agriculture, the population of the world was about 4 million.
What must we do in order to protect our planet and all the Earthlings that depend on it? The list includes everything essential for the energy-guzzling consumer lifestyle, and industrial society itself. These problems were further compounded by the emergence of world financial systems and transnational corporations that are more powerful than most governments. More horses were needed to haul more food over more miles. In general, though, gatherers and hunters do not live under the constant threat of starvation. This should be one of the primers in any student's basic history and environmental studies readings. Agriculture involves the clearing of the natural ecosystem in order to create an artificial habitat where humans can grow the plants and stock the animals they want.
After all it was small enough for them to walk round the entire island in a day or so and see for themselves what was happening to the forests. Our situation with the planet is no different. Raamatu sõnum on tegelikult väga lihtne ja sünge. The bubble of cheap and abundant horse feed was over. This is not the case with global warming. The fourth trait was the adoption of technological means to overcome difficulties imposed by hostile environments.
The environmental problems now facing the world are deeply rooted in human history. This new edition of Clive Ponting's international bestseller has been revised, expanded and updated. Consequently, villages and towns remained small, close to their food supply. For the last two million years, humans have succeeded in obtaining more food and extracting more resources on which to sustain increasing numbers of people and increasingly complex and technologically advanced societies. The gathering and hunting way of life was highly stable and very long lasting. It will disintegrate, sooner or later. The last two centuries have been characterized not just by the use of non-renewable fossil fuels coal, oil and natural gas but by a vast increase in energy consumption.
Ponting provi A New Green History of the World 2007 is the new and improved version of A Green History of the World 1991 , which was translated into 13 languages. Modern cities cannot function without nonrenewable fossil power. Ponting argues for a higher sensitivity to the finite nature of our resources and the catastrophic impact on our modern world, should we continue to squander those resources. Industrial workers and those who lived nearby experienced severe health effects, including a sharp rise in cancer. This book, calmly and sanely, argues for an increased realization of the finite nature of our resources, and the impact on our world should we continue squandering those resources. The incredible filth attracted countless trillions of flies that took great delight in spreading typhoid. Eventually, farmers could no longer afford to have urban manure hauled to their distant fields, so it piled up in empty places.
It was this basic form of subsistence — gathering and hunting — that was to last as the human way of life until the development of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. I find it sickening how little regard humans have had for other populations as early as the rise of the first societies. The first is that climate change will be much faster in the 21 st century than it was in the last decades of the 20 th century. In Paris in the 1780s, there was such widespread urban poverty that 25% of all babies were abandoned on the streets by their parents. Mingi õnneliku juhuse läbi sattus täpselt seesama teema ka riigieksamisse, seega parim aeg selle lugemiseks sai vist just läbi, aga parem ikka hilja kui mitte kunagi. The Heart of the Problem: Global warming is the greatest threat that the world faces and finding a solution will be extremely difficult for reasons that lie deep within the way human societies have evolved in the last 10,000 years. With an argument of urgent relevance to our modern society, A Green History of the World offers a provocative and illuminating view of human history and its relationship to the environment.