In the 1930s Yiguandao spread rapidly throughout China led by , who is the eighteenth patriarch of the Xiantiandao lineage, among thousands of other movements that thrived since the collapse of the in 1911. As a devotee of Guanyin Goddess of Mercy , she did not consume beef, which was the custom, and observed the practice of being vegetarian on new and full moon days. By the early 1900s, the Pearl River Delta had become a major production centre for silk. The human beings were sent to the east and lost their memory of the Mother. The black-and-white amah, renowned for her domestic skills, has left a mark on history in more ways than one, as Janice Loo tells us. A bicycle was a big deal in those days.
Marjorie Topley, who was a pioneer in the field of social anthropology in the postwar period and also the first president of the revived Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Liu Qingxu succeeded the leadership becoming the 16th patriarch. Typically, there were more unmarried women engaged in the silk cottage industry than married ones. I would shut my eyes tight and wait for that reassuring moment when I could feel the crumpled blanket being gently rearranged over my body. In the old days servants used specific terms when referring to each member of the family.
Photographs of the same girl taken in the 1930s and 1940s reveal a different person: a decidedly more confident woman, with hair neatly combed back into a long ponytail. After a persecution started in 1883 becaused the Qing suspected that the sect intended to organise a rebellion, Wang was forced to live secretly until his death. Yiguandao conceives the cosmos as tripartite, consisting of litian the right heaven , qitian the spiritual heaven and xiangtian the material plane. Only litian is eternal, and qitian and xiangtian will be re-absorbed into litian. The rest of the children in the Lee household followed in quick succession and as it became increasingly difficult for my mother and Nenek to look after the brood, Ah Sim was asked to look after me and my younger brother Andrew. Keywords: religious associations; Singapore; China; religious symbols; religion; religious ritual; group worship; political system Chapter. The next day the morning routine continued, much to my relief.
We had a different soup every day. Claiming to be the incarnation of Maitreya, Lu gathered thousands of members in Shandong. Economic and friendly associations in towns often made use of religious elements but limits were set to this, and the same was true of a number of associations that had more directly religious purposes. On the first and 15th day of each lunar month she would prepare her own vegetarian meal, as was common among amahs as a form of religious devotion. However, the Cantonese are certainly quite open about the fact that they perform them, whereas the Hokkiens have been most reluctant to admit it.
Women harvested the mulberry leaves, raised silkworms, and produced silk threads by soaking the cocoons in hot water to loosen the fibres before reeling or spinning them into strands. At first, , the practice of receiving direct revelations from the gods which is closely linked to the Chinese intellectual tradition since the , contributed to the dynamism of the movement. It was estimated that up to 70 percent of their wages was saved or remitted. The article claimed that Yiguandao members were traitors collaborating with the Japanese invaders, Kuomintang spies, and reactionary landlords. Immigrant Chinese female servants and their hostels in Singapore.
Like the amahs of old, many domestic helpers labour from dawn till dusk — sometimes without a day-off — in order to provide a better life for their loved ones back home. Such forms of marriage appear to be more common among the Cantonese than other dialect groups, although there are marriages being arranged for members of Straits-born Hokkien families. While still banned in China, Yiguandao was legally recognised in Taiwan in 1987 and has flourished since then. Topley's many groundbreaking contributions in anthropology, migration studies, and women's studies. Her wish was granted and in December 1990, at age 79, she entered the home and lived there for 27 years. Since the 1980s some denominations of Yiguandao have established a professionalised clergy.
His mouth was perfect and he already had a long beard. With economic self-sufficiency, these women began to question marriage and childbearing as their accepted fate. Working for an expatriate family had its perks in terms of higher wages, better accommodations, well-defined hours and a fixed job scope. Domestic service was a popular and practical choice as employment was easy to find and the work was seen as respectable and neither too difficult nor unfamiliar. We spoke a multicultural melange of Baba Malay, Cantonese and English at home, and somehow we all understood each other. Youth purity is considered more conductive of divine revelation.
In Ownby, David; Goossaert, Vincent; Zhe, Ji. Her areas of specialization include Chinese in Southeast Asia; the anthropology of religion; and ethnicity, nationalism, and transnationalism. To facilitate the spread Zhang Tianran restructured Yiguandao, that since then had preserved the nine-levels structure jiupin liantai of Xiantiandao. Those who devote their efforts to the spread of the Tao will be repaid for their merits, regardless of their society status. However, the Cantonese are certainly quite open about the fact that they perform them, whereas the Hokkiens have been most reluctant to admit it.
Women made up a substantial proportion of the labour force engaged in the silk cottage industry. All majie worked as domestic servants or amahs, but not all amahs were majie. This photograph was taken while on holiday in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia, in 1969. Marjorie Topley trained at the London School of Economics, worked as curator of anthropology at the Raffles Museum in Singapore in the early 1950s. In 1915, he was initiated into Yiguandao by Lu Zhongyi, the 17th patriarch of the sect. However, not all amahs were as fortunate because access to such options depended on whether they had squirrelled away enough savings for a comfortable retirement.
She has conducted extensive ethnographic research on Chinese popular religion in Malaysia and Singapore and her publications include 2004 and 2006. Marriage resistance in rural Kwangtung pp. In the 1870s, under persecutions from the Qing, Xiantiandao fragmented into several independent groups. This state of affairs continued until May 1938, when a monthly quota of 500 was imposed on women. Ah Sim hand-sewed all her own clothes, including the knotted buttons she made for her blouses. These functioned as a place for adolescent girls from the same village to gather, socialise and learn from one another. However, few members welcomed the new claims; many challenged the validity of the revelation and left the group.