Third, gender equity policy production is increasingly being outsourced on a contractual basis to consultants who are less likely to speak truth to power due to their reliance upon delivering the goods to continue in business. Paper presented to the Canadian Society for the Study of Education, St. Thus, it differs along several dimensions from most of the other mechanisms discussed. Stuart-Wells eds Education, Culture, Economy and Society Oxford: Oxford University Press. On the other hand, decentralization has considerably increased the influence of local political bodies — regions, departments 90 Agnès van Zanten and municipalities — especially in the area of educational provision.
The nature and consequences of the differences between the approaches are elaborated below. The other side of this particular coin is the growth of a number of private tutoring services which assist students to develop their computer skills. Parental choice of school is a complicated matter influenced by many factors, only one of which is perceived academic achievement in the school. Educational attainment in secondary schools John Marks and Caroline Cox 12. If all students need to learn certain knowledge and skills, then it seems logical that these items should form the basis of a common curriculum.
American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans. Similar conclusions have been suggested by several other research teams as well Fitz et al. As concerns the educational domain, it is easy to show that decentralization, accountability, marketization, managerialism and professionalization have become key concepts in the reform discourses of policy-makers in many countries around the world. Weiler eds Feminism and Social Justice London: The Falmer Press. Having money permits one to fantasise escaping corporeality and history. As with other reforms, testing regimes vary across jurisdictions.
At the surface level these reform programs seem to embody many common features, and thus appear to be attractive options for other countries considering ways of improving education. In more practical terms Codd looks at what policy analysts can do with the texts of policy and outlines an approach to the deconstruction of xiv Introduction policy languages focusing on how language works to manufacture consent. In this instance Coles supermarkets encouraged schools to collect Coles shopping dockets and once certain targets were reached schools were awarded Apple softand hardware. It means both co-opting the language of the market, while seeking to shift its meaning. Through the revolution and out the other side Stuart Maclure 21. He goes on to say: Corporations play a double role here.
Choice plans, too, differ greatly not only from one country to another, but within countries or states. These concepts have a normative function. Local education authorities continue to exist, but their powers have been sharply curtailed, and almost all funding now flows directly to schools with its use determined by the governing bodies. The state raises expectations of democratic involvement in local self managing schools, but makes self managing schools increasingly dependent upon voluntary parental labour for funds. While most forms do not fit exactly under a modern or a postmodern heading and combine features of each, some do tend to have more features from one side than from the other and can therefore be identified with that particular genre. Of course the messages delivered are multiple and contradictory but this is also the case with many conventional educational texts.
This is based on the work of Hofstede 1994. The point is that the process involved requires all member nations to cede and pool some of their national policy making capacity to the regional organization. New Zealand uses a similar approach, with parents free to choose schools and schools that are popular free to choose students. The extent to which the system will work in the ways prescribed is indeed another story, one we will begin to explore in this paper which is concerned with the decentralizing side of the policy agenda. Segal points to the irony that: In the countries where there have been longer periods of social-democratic government and stronger trade unions there is far less pay-differential and occupational segregation both vertical and horizontal between women and men, and far greater expansion of welfare services. This volume is part of the Education Heritage series.
Problems in comparing examination attainment in selective and comprehensive secondary schools Ken Fogelman 13. Although these themes are not always prominent in commentaries, political writings have often been very deeply concerned with both educational theory and practice. Schools are expected to compete for students, since their funding depends largely on enrolments, and are required to make certain kinds of information, including achievement results, available to parents to assist their choice. The book has been compiled by the current editors of the journal to show the development of the field, and their specially written introduction contextualises the selection and introduces students to the main issues and current thinking in the field. The state is conceived to be a range of practices, processes, procedures and structures which work, often in contradiction to each other, but which can provide openings for feminist interventions Franzway et al.
In the model of the market, a neat and potentially antagonistic division is created between parents and educational professionals. The competitive individualism, outcomes orientation and surveillance aspects of the strong accountability mechanisms not only reduce the professional autonomy of teachers locally, but the strong policy frameworks of corporate managerialism have led to the reassertion of hierarchy within teaching such that professional judgement is subordinated to management prerogative, both locally and centrally, under performance management contractual arrangements Blackmore et al. But a regression has begun under the neo-conservative Federal Coalition, with their dis-investment in gender equity both symbolically, for example, with the abolition of gender neutral language guidelines in government documents, and in reducing the resourcing of gender equity infrastructure established during the 1980s. On the past and future of sovereignty and citizenship, in G. Claims upon the state have also come from within, from previously marginalized groups such as women and indigenous groups e. In a nutshell, the difference is that globalization is not the result of the imposition of a policy by one country on another, possibly backed up by the threat of bilateral military action, but a much more supranationally constructed effect. It is made possible by the imperatives of consensus, corporate federalism and new nationalism.